Background: Hydrocephalus is a multifactorial abnormal condition characterized by the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and an enlarged head and classified into numerous types based on its etiology, examination results, and management. This study aimed to obtain the profile of pediatric hydrocephalus patients with the ventriculoatrial shunt.
Methods: This study was a retrospective descriptive study using secondary data from the medical records of pediatric hydrocephalus patients during 2019 – 2020.
Results: The research results obtained from 15 patients were dominated by patients with an age range of 12 months – 2 years (46.7%) and male (66.7%). The majority of patients had undergone shunt or drainage surgery (53.3%). Most of the patients had a total GCS of 14 – 15 (66.7%), the majority of patients experienced two clinical symptoms (40%) and experienced shunt malfunction (53.3%) while only a few patients experienced shunt malposition (13.3%). Vomiting was the most common symptom (53.3%), while abdominal enlargement and nausea were experienced by a small proportion of patients (20%). The majority of result in the CSF examination was colorless CSF (46.7%), clear (86.7%), no clots (100%), and positive Nonne Pandy examination (80%). The average total cells in the CSF were 56,303, the average polymorphonuclear cell was 25,593; the average mononuclear cell was 73.37; the average glucose concentration was 41.86; and the average protein concentration was 846.32.
Conclusion: The decision to insert a ventriculoatrial shunt in a pediatric hydrocephalus patient varies considerably. Some patients report complaints of abdominal pain, nausea, and bloating, while others report mechanical shunt failure and shunt malposition. Furthermore, there are discrepancies in the CSF examination results.
Keywords: child well-being, hydrocephalus, pediatric, ventriculoatrial shunt